In this paper, we looked at how neuropsychiatric symptoms interacted with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers to predict driving decline. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), which was completed by each participant’s collateral source (generally family member or friend). The NPI-Q includes questions about delusion, hallucination, agitation, depression, anxiety, elation, apathy, disinhibition, irritability, motor disturbances, nighttime behaviors, and appetite.

We found that in 116 participants, those who have both more abnormal CSF biomarkers and neuropsychiatric symptoms were faster to fail a driving test than those who only had abnormal CSF biomarkers but did not have neuropsychiatric symptoms. So when someone has both of those abnormal factors, their driving may be more negatively affected.

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